Here we explain some of the abbreviations and terms that we use.
ANC: antenatal clinic. All pregnant women attending ANC are offered counselling and testing for HIV. Those who do not wish to be tested have the option to opt-out of the testing. This is an important component of PMTCT (see below).
ART: anti-retroviral therapy. This refers to the treatments given to HIV positive patients to reduce the amount of HIV virus, and to restore the immune system. Once initiated, ART should be taken for the rest of one’s life.
CTC: HIV care and treatment clinics. This is the name given to clinics in Tanzania which provide services to those who are HIV positive. Care refers to the services available prior to initiation of ART, and treatment refers to the ART treatment.
EGPAF: Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation. EGPAF is an NGO that provides HIV services in Tanzania, Zambia, and many other countries in Africa.
Futures Group: The Futures Group is an NGO that provides technical support for HIV services in many countries in Africa, including Tanzania and Zambia.
GFATM: Global Fund for AIDS, TB and Malaria.
HTC: HIV testing and counseling services. HTC includes many routes by which a person may be tested and counselled for HIV, including voluntary counselling and testing, and routine testing while attending health services (such as ANC).
ICAP: International Centre for AIDS Care and Treatment Program. ICAP is an NGO that provides HIV services in Tanzania, and many other countries in Africa.
KCMUCo: Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University college is a Tanzanian medical school providing Masters-level and PhD-level training in Public Health.
LSHTM: London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine is one of the leading research-focused graduate schools. It is leading the work in the SEARCH project with funds from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation
MDH: Muhimbili Dar City Harvard. MDH is an NGO that provides HIV services in Tanzania, and many other countries in Africa.
MoH: Ministry of Health. MoH provides the basic health services in many countries including Malawi and Zambia. In Tanzania, it is called the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (MoHSW). In Zambia there are two health ministries, the Ministry of Health (MoH) and the Ministry of Community Development, Mother and Child Health (MoCDMCH).
NACP: National AIDS Control Program. NACP is the section of MoHSW that coordinates the HIV services in Tanzania.
PAI: PharmAccess International. PAI is an NGO that provides HIV services in Tanzania, and many other countries in Africa.
PEPFAR: President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief.
PITC: provider-initiated counselling and testing.
PMTCT: prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV.
SEARCH: sustainable evaluation using analysis of routinely collected HIV data.
TUNAJALI: Deloitte/Family Health International. TUNAJALI is an NGO that provides HIV services in Tanzania, and many other countries in Africa.
UNAIDS: Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS.
UNDP: United Nations Development Programme.
UNZA: University of Zambia, School of Medicine provides postgraduate training at Masters-level and PhD-level. It provides the academic training for SEARCH fellows in Zambia.
USG: United States Government. USG provides the funds for PEPFAR (see above).
VCT: voluntary counselling and testing. One of the ways a person can find out their HIV status is by attending VCT clinics.
WHO: World Health Organization.
ZAMBART: The Zambia AIDS Related Tuberculosis (ZAMBART) Project is a Zambian NGO which is administering the SEARCH project in Zambia.